Periodontology : is the part of dentistry that specializes in the treatment of periodontal, that is to say, the tooth-supporting tissues : gingiva, alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament.
The main clinical signs of periodontitis :
- Bleeding brushing, often the patient thinks his gums bleed because he brushed too hard, in fact is often the opposite happens.
- Red and swollen gingiva
- Frequent halitosis (bad breath)
- Mobility(s) dental(s) and/or loss dental(s)
In the early stages, it is often a simple gingivitis caused by bacterial plaque.
This stage is reversible.
All irreversible periodontitis always strat with gingivitis phase.
Periodontics is an infectious disease, accompanied by all the traditional signs of the infection.
This infection is localized in the gingival sulcus.
It affects different structures : gum, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, cementum (cell structure that covers the root dentin).
The diagnosis is confirmed by the bacterial sample analyzed by phase contrats microscope, which highlights :
- the presence of pathological bacteria, accompanied by parasites (antomoebia gingivalis, trichominas tenax, candida albicans…)
- bacterial mobility revealing aggression flora
Consequences of periodontitis :
On the oral condition :
- Gingivale inflammation
- Tooth mobility
- Plus tartar presence and / or subgingival
- Root tartar presence prohibiting epithelial attachment
- Receding gum
- Lengthening the visible part of the tooth (teeth feel « long »)
- Bone destruction
- Tooth loss
- Low context caries
On the condition :
- Strong increase in cardiovascular disease
- Strong increase risk of premature birth
The different types of periodontitis are classified according to the severity of clinical signs :
- periodontitis debutante
- localized moderate periodontitis
- generalized moderate periodontitis
- advanced periodontitis